Background Information
January 1997

1997 HALL OF FAME INDUCTEES

ALFRED Y. CHO, Ph.D.

Lucent Technologies, Liberty Corner, N.J.

In 1968, when Alfred Cho joined Bell Laboratories, he envisioned that as electronic and photonic devices were getting smaller and smaller, a need would develop for a crystal growth technology with control of layer thickness and material composition. This insight led to the development of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE).

During the early 1970's, Cho used surface analytical techniques to understand molecular beam crystal growth under controlled high vacuum conditions. He was the first to observe the 2-dimensional reflection high energy electron diffraction pattern of GaAs crystal growth and the atomic smoothing of the crystal surface which ultimately formed the basis for the successful growth of superlattice and quantum well structures with atomic layer precision.

MBE is used to prepare single crystal films for semiconductors, metals and insulators, with exquisite control. These structures play an important role in the fabrication of electronic and optical devices found in consumer electronics and other products.

Cho has been awarded 48 patents on crystal growth and semiconductor device technology related to MBE. Often referred to as "the father of MBE," his many research accomplishments include construction of a surface phase diagram for MBE crystal growth, the first fabrication of an MBE artificial superlattice, the first MBE IMPATT diode, mixer diode, field effect transistor operating at microwave frequencies, and the first MBE double-heterostructure laser operating at room temperature.

Cho earned bachelor's, master's and doctorate degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois. He is director of semiconductor research of the Physical Science and Engineering Division at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J.

JAMES L. FLANAGAN, Ph.D.

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.

Outstanding contributions in the areas of voice communications, computer techniques, and electroacoustic systems by James L. Flanagan have resulted in products and processes of great benefit to society and the awarding of 48 U.S. patents in the area of telecommunications.

Flanagan's modeling of the basilar membrane motion led to engineering models of auditory signal processing. His achievements with mathematical and experimental modeling of vocal excitation for speech production have provided a basis for advanced speech synthesizers.

Flanagan's work has provided the basis for many of the low-bit-rate coding algorithms now in wide use for telecommunications and electronic voice mail systems. He has done pioneering work on acoustic signal processing, and his efforts have led to the development of autodirective microphone arrays for teleconferencing.

His book, Speech Analysis, Synthesis and Perception, is widely recognized as the seminal presentation of the scientific and technical aspects of speech processing systems.

In July 1996, he received the National Medal of Science, the nation's highest scientific honor from President Bill Clinton. Other awards include the Gold Medal of the Acoustical Society of America, the Edison Medal of the IEEE, the L.M. Ericsson International Prize in Telecommunications, and the Medal of the European Speech Communication Association.

Flanagan is vice president for research and director of the Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity at Rutgers University. He earned a bachelor's degree from Mississippi State University and master's and doctorate degrees from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

MILTON MORSE

APM Hexseal Corp., Englewood, N.J.

During a 50 year career, Milton Morse has provided technical solutions important to the development of a variety of industrial, commercial and military products and systems. He holds 65 U.S. patents and 39 foreign patents from France, Japan, Great Britain, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium and Canada. Still active at the age of 84, his most recent patent was issued in January 1995.

Among Morse's more commercially successful inventions and the major source of his company's revenues, are environmental sealing boots for electrical components. The seals provide an inexpensive means of protecting electrical/electronic switches and circuit breakers from failure due to exposure to water, salt spray, dust, grease, oil, lubricants, and solvents. The seals have been used in defense applications including submarines, aircraft carriers, Polaris missiles, Patriot missile launch controls, and Apollo space vehicles. The seals are also widely used in industrial and commercial applications such as machine tools, aircraft, waste treatment equipment, pressure washers, underwater lighting and chemical processing equipment.

His patents have ranged from geothermal techniques for desalinating water to multi-speed derailleur gear shifting mechanisms; from electroacoustic loudspeaker transducers to manually-releasable, self-grounding electrical plugs. And from vandal resistant telephone keypads to omnidirectional radar scanning systems.

RICHARD H. RANGER (1889-1962)

Rangertone Inc., Newark, N.J.

In 1924, Richard Ranger, then a designer for the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), invented the wireless photoradiogram or transoceanic radio facsimile, the forerunner of today's "fax" machines. Born in Indianapolis, he served in World War I in the laboratories of the U.S. Signal Corps in Fort Monmouth.

In November 1924, a photograph of President Calvin Coolidge became the first photo picture reproduced by transoceanic radio facsimile when it was sent from New York to London. Commercial use of Ranger's product began two years later. Officials of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. in London cooperated with RCA in introducing the Ranger system, which could send a 5x7 inch photograph in about 20 minutes.

In 1928, Ranger invented the photo-radioscope, which used jets of hot and cold air playing on a sensitized screen to record enlarged pictures. Early in 1931, Ranger established his own consulting engineering business to specialize in radio, acoustics and general electronic technique. In 1933, he invented the electronic chimes, a automatic device to reproduce the familiar hand-struck chimes used by the National Broadcasting Co. (NBC). Four years later, he created the Rangertone portable electric organ.

By connecting his electrically operated chimes with outdoor loudspeakers, he was later able to create the effect of church bells. During World War II, he was put in charge of radar and communications for the U.S. Army and spent 1944 to 1946 on technical intelligence missions in Europe. While in Germany, he studied German advances in tape recorders which led to further development of magnetic tape recorders after the war.

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts presented Ranger with an "Oscar" in 1956 for his development of the tape recorder and synchronization of film and sound.

Ranger was a 1911 alumnus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

HARRY L. YALE, Ph.D.

E.R. Squibb and Sons, New Brunswick, N.J.

During a 33-year career at the Squibb Institute for Medical Research, Harry Yale was responsible for the discovery and development of six ethical drugs. His first success was the development of the anti-tuberculosis compound Isoniazid for which he received the Lasker Award in Public Health in 1953.

Yale also played key roles in the development of the antipsychotic drugs Vesperin (triflupromazine), Prolixin (fluphenazine) and its derivatives Proflixin Enanthate and Prolixin Decanoate which are long acting drugs. Also, the diuretic antihypertensive Naturetin (bendroflumethiazide).

The author or co-author of 156 patents and some 125 academic research papers, Yale served as editor of the aliphatic compound section of Chemical Abstracts for 25 years. He earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of Illinois and a doctorate in organic chemistry from Iowa State. Yale also worked for the National Defense Research Committee synthesizing booster explosives, was a research chemist at Shell Development Co. and participated in the Manhattan Project.

At his retirement from Squibb in 1979, he was a Senior Research Fellow.

PIONEER

EZRA GOULD (1809-1901)

Gould & Eberhardt Gear Machinery Corp., Webster, Mass.

(formerly Gould Machine Co., Newark, N.J.)

One of the finest mechanics of his day, Ezra Gould also possessed considerable skill as an inventor. He is credited with designing and building the first shaping machine and one of the earliest gear cutting machines made in the United States.

Gould's company began in a small plant in Newark in 1833. In 1851, the American Institute awarded Ezra Gould the silver medal for his shaping machine, drill press and hand-operated gear-cutting machine, exhibited at the Crystal Palace in New York City. Many other machines, now in extensive use, owe their history to the mechanical and inventive genius of Gould.

In 1877, Gould formed a partnership with Ulrich Eberhardt to establish Gould & Eberhardt. The firm manufactured Gould's gear cutters and shapers and sold the machines around the world. A major customer was the auto industry, where each of the major auto companies used cutting and shaping equipment to produce automotive gears.

Gould, who retired in 1890 at the age of 81, was well known in business and society circles and was a noted philanthropist.

During World War II, Gould & Eberhardt, then located in Newark, received an Army-Navy "E" Production Award in recognition of extraordinary achievement in the production of war equipment. At the time, the company was one of the largest in the world specializing in shaping and gear hobbing machines, basic tools required for the production of all types of machinery.

CORPORATE INVENTION HALL OF FAME

JOHNSON & JOHNSON

New Brunswick, NJ

Marcy Gutierrez, Corporate Communications

Since the mid-1880s, when the newly created Johnson & Johnson began making the first antiseptic surgical dressings, the company has grown to become the world's largest and most comprehensive manufacturer of health care products serving the consumer, pharmaceutical and professional markets.

Johnson & Johnson holds 3,232 active U.S. patents and 16,622 active international patents along with 46,128 trademark registrations and 4,316 unique trademarks. The company's achievements are rooted in a century-long commitment to developing novel technologies into new cost-effective products that enhance or save lives, in a highly entrepreneurial, decentralized structure with a strong ethical core. More than 36 percent of 1995 sales were from products introduced in the past five years.

In 1996, Johnson & Johnson's Research and Development investment reached $1.9 billion and included more than 7,200 researchers, making the company the only health care firm among the top 10 U.S. corporations in terms of R&D spending.

When most surgeons were still ignoring Lister's germ theory, Johnson & Johnson launched antiseptic wound dressings, and then, with new technology, the world's first sterile bandages. From sutures, baby powder, BAND-AID[reg.] Brand Adhesive Bandages and dental floss to disposable contact lenses, coronary artery stents, instruments for endoscopic surgery and the world's first test for hepatitis C -- commitment to innovation characterizes the strategies of Johnson & Johnson's 164 operating companies.

Today, Johnson & Johnson is the world market leader in oral contraceptives, surgical stents, disposable contact lenses, antifungal drugs, blood glucose monitoring systems, sutures, medical diagnostics, over-the-counter drugs and instruments for minimally-invasive surgery. The company is also the U.S. leader in clinical chemistry analyzers, neurosurgical instruments and non-invasive blood pressure monitors.

Johnson & Johnson's philosophy is guided by a credo written by the late General Robert Wood Johnson 50 years ago, outlining responsibilities to customers, employees, stockholders and the community.

Johnson & Johnson was the recipient of the 1996 National Medal of Technology, the nation's highest honor for technological innovation.

INVENTORS OF THE YEAR

ARTHUR L. BABSON, Ph.D. (1927- )

DPC Cirrus, Inc., Randolph, N.J.

Arthur Babson's discovery of a novel approach to cleanly separate bound material from free material in an immunoassay led to the development of the fully automated immunoassay system, known as IMMULITE.

Immunoassay is one of the most accurate, specific, sensitive and reliable procedures undertaken by the clinical laboratory. The Immunoassay procedure uses the phenomenon of antigen-antibody affinity to determine the presence and quality of minute traces of substances, primarily in bodily fluids.

The procedure is widely used for tests such as: thyroid function, hormones and proteins, cancer detection and monitoring, and detection of infectious diseases, especially viruses and other diseases that are impossible to detect with other procedures.

By 1991, when Babson's system received approval from the FDA, at least 15 major corporations had each spent more than $100 million developing the system, but with the exception of Babson's, only two of the 15 have experienced commercial success. Babson developed the IMMULITE system for less than $10 million.

Babson earned 34 patents and has published 66 technical papers. He was the 1975 recipient of the AACC Gerulat Award for outstanding contributions to clinical chemistry. He earned a bachelor's degree from Cornell University and master's and doctorate degrees from Rutgers University.

WALTER JINOTTI (1931- )

Robert Wood Johnson University Medical School, New Brunswick, N.J.

The blood pump, Tycos Pressure Infuser, and oxygen suction catheters that combine suction with life-saving oxygenation as well as reducing the risk of hypoxemia (arterial oxygen desaturation) are among the devices invented by Walter Jinotti.

The Tycos Blood Pump or Tycos Pressure Infuser, transfuses blood in a steadier and safer method and is five times faster than previous models. The pump, a windup, spring-operated device, requires no outside power and no continuous monitoring.

The Jinotti Catheter system puts the complete control of endotracheal suction and oxygen in the hands of the clinician. If a particular procedure requires the administration of a saline solution or medications for irrigation, an oxygen port can be attached to a standard luer syringe so that the clinician can medicate and reconnect the oxygen line to aerosol the medication into the patient, then immediately return to the suction by squeezing the valve. This valve can be used repeatedly on the same patient while disposing of the catheter after every use, a cost-effective method.

Jinotti also is the inventor of the widely used Vesuvius Pollen Sampler, which takes wind into account when estimating a pollen count. The device enables accurate measurements of pollen and mold spores. It is commonly used to provide media reports on the daily pollen counts.

Jinotti is a professor of biomedical engineering at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and visiting professor at Rutgers University's Biomedical College of Engineering and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ). Jinotti earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Pennsylvania and holds an honorary doctorate from the University of London.

STEVEN M. KUZNICKI, Ph.D. (1953- )

Engelhard Corp., Iselin, N.J.

Microporous solids form the heart of many important processes in the areas of catalysis, ion-exchange, and adsorption. Steven Kuznicki discovered a new class of microporous materials which are changing the direction of this evolving field.

Kuznicki has taken a lead role in the area of adsorption, developing concepts such as desiccant cooling and heavy metal adsorption. The desiccant air conditioner pushes air flows through large wheels coated with a zeolite catalyst to remove water from the air. Dry air is easier to cool, requiring less energy. The adsorption of heavy metals, especially lead, from drinking water has been impacted by this new chemistry. Several other applications are soon to follow.

These new materials are distinctive because they contain six, instead of four, coordinated atomic sites. This basic new chemistry is impacting areas from water clean-up to compressorless air conditioning.

Kuznicki earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Utah.

LEE-FANG WEI

Lucent Technologies, Liberty Corner, N.J.

Lee-Wang Fei has continually applied his innovative ability in coded modulation and digital communications to drive modem and transmission technology. His invention of the Multidimensional Trellis-Coded Communication System, a modem for high-speed data transmission (28.8Kbps) over telephone lines.

Wei holds 22 patents with eight new applications pending.

TSONG-HO WU

RICHARD C.L. LAU

BELLCORE (Bell Communications Research) Red Bank, N.J.

Tsong-Ho Wu and Richard C.L. Lau developed new approaches to designing and building "self-healing" ring networks that can automatically withstand a cut link. Self-healing rings have emerged as the techniques of choice in providing cost-effective and reliable protection against fiber link and node failures in the data transmission networks.

When the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) standards were first proposed and debated in the 1980s, most researchers focused on the protocols and specifications. However, Wu and Lau noted that since one strand of fiber carries so much vital information, survivability and self-healing would surface as a critical issue. Guided by this vision, the two inventors proposed the basic concepts of self-healing rings. They played a leading role in working with numerous organizations in the industry to develop the detailed control algorithms and protocols, and submitted a suite of contributions to different standards bodies that led to the deployment of their protection schemes.

Sales of SONET ring equipment were estimated to exceed $2 billion in 1996.

YOUNG INVENTOR

MARTIN C. PETTESCH

Universal Valve Company, Elizabeth, N.J.

At age 31, Martin Pettesch is quickly developing a reputation in the oil equipment industry for innovation as the developer of some 55 products including 10 patents and six patents pending. He is the developer of the observation monitoring-well manhole cover, hose retractors, a sealing plug for a monitoring well, a movable manhole cover, and an underground service vault. At present, he has another 15 products in research and development.

The Observation Monitoring Well Manhole Cover is triangular in shape and features the standard API monitoring symbol. Before the invention, fuel transport drivers were often mistaking monitoring wells with the traditional round manholes for the entrance to underground storage tanks. Filling the monitor wells with gasoline was a potential environmental catastrophe and very costly to clean-up. The triangular cover eliminates the potential for accidental filling of the monitoring wells and are used exclusively by major oil companies such as Exxon and Amoco, as well as at other fueling sites around the world.

Pettesch developed the Observation Monitoring Well Manhole Cover in 1990 while a Cooperative Education student from New Jersey Institute of Technology.

An NJIT graduate, Pettesch is vice president of engineering for Universal Valve Co. Inc.

ANNUAL AWARD FOR ADVANCEMENT OF INVENTION

NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Saul K. Fenster, President

NJIT's tradition as an "alma mater of invention" extends back to its founding in 1881 as Newark Technical School to help prepare residents of the Newark area for jobs in industry. One of the university's founders, Edward Weston, earned 334 patents while working to revolutionize the measurement of electricity.

For more than a century, an NJIT education has served as a springboard to careers in invention and technological development. Over the past two decades, NJIT has experienced spectacular growth in its research programs, emerging as a major research university. The university annually spends in excess of $25 million on research initiatives in environmental engineering, manufacturing, microelectronics, transportation, computer science, multimedia and particle technology.

Inventions developed at NJIT have been patented and licensed for commercial applications in areas such as fiber optics, microelectronic devices, pollution prevention, environmental control and remediation, sensor systems, and separation technology.

To support and encourage invention among both students and faculty, the university recently established a group of awards funded through a bequest from the late Kazuo Hashimoto `95, a pioneer in telephone technology. The Hashimoto Endowment Fund promotes and rewards innovation in the fields of electrical and computer engineering.

Finally, NJIT is the home of the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame. Established in 1987 by the late alumnus Phillip Sperber `66, the Hall of Fame annually recognizes outstanding individual and corporate achievements.